Dr. Kenneth M. Pfarr


Dr. Kenneth Pfarr

Group Leader

Phone: +49-228-287-11207

Fax:  +49-228-287-90-11207

Email: kenneth.pfarr @ ukbonn.de


Research Focus 

The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are round worms that infect humans and cause the diseases lymphatic filariasis (lymphedema and hydrocele) and onchocerciasis (river blindness). In 2017, 56 million people were infected with Wuchereria bancrofti orBrugia malayi, responsible for 1.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). For onchocerciasis the 2017 count was ~21 million cases responsible for 1.3 million DALYs. Current drugs used to interrupt the transmission of these worms to uninfected persons, while very effective at killing the first stage larvae, require several years of annual administration (5-15 years). Additionally, there is evidence for decreased efficacy of these drugs in several foci. 

These nematodes contain essential, obligate endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia. Using tetracyclines or rifampicin, Wolbachia can be depleted from worms in infected animal models of filariasis and human patients. Worms that have been depleted of their endosymbionts are no longer to develop. In adult female worms, depletion of Wolbachia results in a permanent block in oogenesis and embryogenesis. With our partners in Cameroon, Ghana, India, Indonesia and Tanzania, have shown that depletion of the endobacteria from filarial nematodes results in death of the adult worms at the site of infection. Because of these spectacular effects, Wolbachia are targets for controlling filarial infections. However, the current antibiotics require long regimens of daily treatment (at least 3 weeks) to achieve the anti-wolbachial effects. Newer drugs with shorter treatment times are needed to eliminate these infections by 2030 as targeted the WHO Road Map for Neglected Tropical Diseases to fulfill the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

My group is helping to attain the goal of eliminating these diseases by developing the natural product Corallopyronin A (CorA) as an alternative to tetracyclines or rifampicin. This natural product of Myxobacteria has a novel mode of action and has good activity against Wolbachia in vitro and in vivo. To register CorA for use in humans, we, together with our colleagues Prof. Dr. Marc Hübner and Dr. med. Ute Klarmann-Schulz from the IMMIP, are part of the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF). With this German-wide network of research institutes, we are progressing CorA through preclinical development to first-in-human trials.

To better understand Wolbachia, my group is also investigating how the endobacteria respond at the cellular level to antibiotics that disrupt cell wall biosynthesis. This information will helps understand this essential process in Wolbachia and possibly provide new targets for novel antibiotic discovery. Furthermore, we are also deciphering the genetic basis for the development of lymphatic filariasis disease manifestations (lymphedema and hydrocele). By understanding this process, we hope to discover and develop new interventions that can halt or even reverse disease progression in persons who are afflicted by lymphatic filariasis, i.e. morbidity management beyond hygiene or doxycycline treatment.


European Union (NSETHIO, 671055)

German Center for Infection Research (DZIF TTU 09.822 and 09.914, TTU 09.816)

German Research Foundation (DFG, TRR 261/1)


Lab members

Dr. Andrea Schiefer


Phone.:  +49-228-287-11476

Fax.: +49-228-287-11167

Email:  andrea.schiefer @ uni-bonn.de

Project:  Characterization of cell wall biosynthesis in Wolbachia, endosymbionts of filarial nematodes, pre-clinical development of Corallopyronin A as an anti-wolbachial antibiotice to treat filariasis


Tilman Aden

Christine Lämmer

Helene Neufeld

Phone.:  +49-228-287-11510

Fax.: +49-228-287-11167



Lara Behrmann
Ph.D. candidate
Project: Mode of action of cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors in Wolbachia spp.


Lab Contact Information

Phone: +49-228-287-11510



Dr. A. Debrah
Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research (KCCR) and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Project: Monitoring depletion of Wolbachia from W. bancrofti and O. volvulus in patients enlisted in clinical trials of antiwolbachial drugs, and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of patients with lymphatic filariasis
Dr. S. Wanji
Head of Deapartment of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Camoeroon
Project: Developing rapid diagnostics for lymphatic filariasis, onchocercaias, loiasis and mansonellosis
Dr. Tanja Schneider
Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology
University Medical Center Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Project: Lipid II biosynthesis in the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia of filarial nematodes
Dr. G. König
Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology
University of Bonn, Germany
Project: Corallopyronin A development as an antifilarial chemotherpeutic agent

US 9168244 B2 Compounds for use in the treatment of filariasis (Therapeutic treatment of filariasis/dirofilariasis in humans/animals) Inventors: Kenneth Michael Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Gabriele Maria Koenig, Sabine Specht, Andrea Schiefer, Till Friedrich Schaeberle, Alexander Schmitz, Stefan Kehraus (granted 2015-10-27, duration: 2032-05-04).

EP 2704708 B1 Compounds for use in the treatment of filariasis (Prevention and treatment of filariasis/dirofilariasis in humans/animals) Inventors: Kenneth Michael Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Gabriele Maria Koenig, Sabine Specht, Andrea Schiefer, Till Friedrich Schaeberle, Alexander Schmitz, Stefan Kehraus (2017-10-11 and validated in: DE, GB, NL, CH, IT, ES, FR and HR, duration: 2032-05-04).

US 9687470 B2 Compounds for use in the treatment of filariasis (Prevention of filariasis/dirofilariasis in dogs and humans) Inventors: Kenneth Michael Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Gabriele Maria Koenig, Sabine Specht, Andrea Schiefer, Till Friedrich Schaeberle, Alexander Schmitz, Stefan Kehraus (granted 2017-06-27, duration: 2032-05-04).


  1. Chung, M., Aluvathingal, J., Bromley, R.E., Nadendla, S., Fombad, F.F., Kien, C.A., Gandjui, N.V.T., Njouendou, A.J., Ritter, M., Sadzewicz, L., et al. (2020). Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Mansonella perstans. Microbiol Resour Announc 9.

  2. Batsa Debrah, L., Phillips, R.O., Pfarr, K., Klarmann-Schulz, U., Opoku, V.S., Nausch, N., Owusu, W., Mubarik, Y., Sander, A.L., Lammer, C., et al. (2019). The efficacy of doxycycline treatment on Mansonella perstans infection: An open-label, randomized trial in Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101, 84-92.

  3. Bouhired, S., Rupp, O., Blom, J., Schaberle, T.F., Schiefer, A., Kehraus, S., Pfarr, K., Goesmann, A., Hoerauf, A., and Konig, G. (2019). Complete Genome Sequence of the Corallopyronin A-Producing Myxobacterium Corallococcus coralloides B035. Microbiol Resour Announc 8.

  4. Hübner, M.P., Koschel, M., Struever, D., Nikolov, V., Frohberger, S.J., Ehrens, A., Fendler, M., Johannes, I., von Geldern, T.W., Marsh, K., et al. (2019). In vivo kinetics of Wolbachia depletion by ABBV-4083 in L. sigmodontis adult worms and microfilariae. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 13, e0007636.

  5. Loeper, N., Graspeuntner, S., Ledig, S., Kaufhold, I., Hoellen, F., Schiefer, A., Henrichfreise, B., Pfarr, K., Hoerauf, A., Shima, K., et al. (2019). Elaborations on Corallopyronin A as a novel treatment strategy against genital chlamydial infections. Front Microbiol 10, 943.

  6. Njouendou, A.J., Kien, C.A., Esum, M.E., Ritter, M., Chounna Ndongmo, W.P., Fombad, F.F., Gandjui, N.V.T., Njiokou, F., Enyong, P., Pfarr, K., et al. (2019). In vitro maintenance of Mansonella perstans microfilariae and its relevance for drug screening. Exp Parasitol 206, 107769.

  7. Ritter, M., Osei-Mensah, J., Debrah, L.B., Kwarteng, A., Mubarik, Y., Debrah, A.Y., Pfarr, K., Hoerauf, A., and Layland, L.E. (2019). Wuchereria bancrofti-infected individuals harbor distinct IL-10-producing regulatory B and T cell subsets which are affected by anti-filarial treatment. PLOS Negl TropDis 13, e0007436.

  8. Hendy, A., Kruger, A., Pfarr, K., De Witte, J., Kibweja, A., Mwingira, U., Dujardin, J.C., Post, R., Colebunders, R., O'Neill, S., et al. (2018). The blackfly vectors and transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in Mahenge, south eastern Tanzania. Acta Trop 181, 50-59.

  9. Kock, F., Hauptmann, M., Osterloh, A., Schaberle, T.F., Poppert, S., Frickmann, H., Menzel, K.D., Peschel, G., Pfarr, K., Schiefer, A., et al. (2018). Orientia tsutsugamushi is highly susceptible to the RNA polymerase switch region inhibitor Corallopyronin A in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 62, e01732-17.

  10. Shima, K., Ledig, S., Loeper, N., Schiefer, A., Pfarr, K., Hoerauf, A., Graspeuntner, S., and Rupp, J. (2018). Effective inhibition of rifampin-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis by the novel DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase inhibitor Corallopyronin A Int J Antimicrob Agents 52, 523-524.

  11. Specht, S., Pfarr, K.M., Arriens, S., Hübner, M.P., Klarmann-Schulz, U., Koschel, M., Sternberg, S., Martin, C., Ford, L., Taylor, M.J., et al. (2018). Combinations of registered drugs reduce treatment times required to deplete Wolbachia in the Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12, e0006116.

  12. Debrah, L.B., Albers, A., Debrah, A.Y., Brockschmidt, F.F., Becker, T., Herold, C., Hofmann, A., Osei-Mensah, J., Mubarik, Y., Frohlich, H., et al. (2017). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic pathways are associated with lymphedema caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Hum Genomics 11, 26.

  13. Globisch, D., Eubanks, L.M., Shirey, R.J., Pfarr, K.M., Wanji, S., Debrah, A.Y., Hoerauf, A., and Janda, K.D. (2017). Validation of onchocerciasis biomarker N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG). Bioorg Med Chem Lett 27, 3436-3440.

  14. Wewer, V., Makepeace, B.L., Tanya, V.N., Peisker, H., Pfarr, K., Hoerauf, A., and Dormann, P. (2017). Lipid profiling of the filarial nematodes Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca ochengi and Litomosoides sigmodontis reveals the accumulation of nematode-specific ether phospholipids in the host. Int J Parasitol.

  15. Wilmes, M., Meier, K., Schiefer, A., Josten, M., Otten, C.F., Klöckner, A., Henrichfreise, B., Vollmer, W., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2017). AmiD is a novel peptidoglycan amidase in Wolbachia endosymbionts of Drosophila melanogaster. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7.

  16. Ajendra, J., Specht, S., Ziewer, S., Schiefer, A., Pfarr, K., Parcina, M., Kufer, T.A., Hoerauf, A., and Hubner, M.P. (2016). NOD2 dependent neutrophil recruitment is required for early protective immune responses against infectious Litomosoides sigmodontis L3 larvae. Sci Rep6, 39648.

  17. Colebunders, R., Mandro, M., Mokili, J.L., Mucinya, G., Mambandu, G., Pfarr, K., Reiter-Owona, I., Hoerauf, A., Tepage, F., Levick, B., et al. (2016). Risk factors for epilepsy in Bas-Uele Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a case-control study. Int J Infect Dis49, 1-8.

  18. Elfaki, T.E., Arndts, K., Wiszniewsky, A., Ritter, M., Goreish, I.A., Atti El Mekki Mel, Y., Arriens, S., Pfarr, K., Fimmers, R., Doenhoff, M., et al. (2016). Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals. PLoS Negl Trop Dis10, e0004629.

  19. Reiter-Owona, I., Rehkaemper-Schaefer, C., Arriens, S., Rosenstock, P., Pfarr, K., and Hoerauf, A. (2016). Specific K39 antibody response and its persistence after treatment in patients with imported leishmaniasis. Parasitol Res115, 761-769.

  20. Weitzel, T., Rosas, R., Fica, A., Dabanch, J., Polanco, M., Egana, A., Triantafilo, V., Pfarr, K., Hoerauf, A., and Reiter-Owona, I. (2016). Is there a risk of filarial infection during long-term missions in Haiti? Travel Med Infect Dis14, 137-142.

  21. Globisch, D., Specht, S., Pfarr, K.M., Eubanks, L.M., Hoerauf, A., and Janda, K.D. (2015). Litomosoides sigmodontis: A jird urine metabolome study. Bioorg Med Chem Lett25, 5804-5807.

  22. Lentz, C.S., Sattler, J.M., Fendler, M., Gottwalt, S., Halls, V.S., Strassel, S., Arriens, S., Hannam, J.S., Specht, S., Famulok, M., et al. (2015). In vitro activity of wALADin benzimidazoles against different life cycle stages of Plasmodium parasites. Antimicrob Agents Chemother59, 654-658.

  23. Lutz, P., Pfarr, K., Nischalke, H., Krämer, B., Goeser, F., Glässner, A., Wolter, F., Kokordelis, P., Nattermann, J., Sauerbruch, T., et al. (2015). The ratio of calprotectin to total protein as diagnostic and prognostic marker for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Clin Chem Lab Med53, 2031-2039.

  24. Quintana, J.F., Makepeace, B.L., Babayan, S.A., Ivens, A., Pfarr, K.M., Blaxter, M., Debrah, A., Wanji, S., Ngangyung, H.F., Bah, G.S., et al. (2015). Extracellular Onchocerca -derived small RNAs in host nodules and blood. Parasit Vectors8, 58.

  25. Schäberle, T.F., Schmitz, A., Zocher, G., Schiefer, A., Kehraus, S., Neu, E., Roth, M., Vassylyev, D.G., Stehle, T., Bierbaum, G., et al. (2015). Insights into Structure−Activity Relationships of bacterial RNA polymerase inhibiting Corallopyronin derivatives. J Nat Prod78, 2505-2509.

  26. Albers, A., Sartono, E., Wahyuni, S., Yazdanbakhsh, M., Maizels, R.M., Klarmann-Schulz, U., Pfarr, K., and Hoerauf, A. (2014). Real-time PCR detection of the HhaI tandem DNA repeat in pre- and post-patent Brugia malayi infections: a study in Indonesian transmigrants. Parasit Vectors7, 146.

  27. Arumugam, S., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K.M. (2014). Localization of a filarial phosphate permease that is up-regulated in response to depletion of essential Wolbachia endobacteria. Exp Parasitol138, 30-39.

  28. Johnston, K.L., Ford, L., Umareddy, I., Townson, S., Specht, S., Pfarr, K., Hoerauf, A., Altmeyer, R., and Taylor, M.J. (2014). Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist4, 278-286.

  29. Lentz, C.S., Halls, V.S., Hannam, J.S., Strassel, S., Lawrence, S.H., Jaffe, E.K., Famulok, M., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K.M. (2014). wALADin benzimidazoles differentially modulate the function of porphobilinogen synthase orthologs. J Med Chem57, 2498-2510.

  30. Lutz, P., Pfarr, K., Nischalke, H.D., Krämer, B., Goeser, F., Nattermann, J., Sauerbruch, T., Hoerauf, A., Strassburg, C.P., and Spengler, U. (2014). The ratio of ascites calprotectin to total protein is a diagnostic and prognostic marker for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis. J Hepatol60, S231.

  31. Schäberle, T.F., Schiefer, A., Schmitz, A., König, G.M., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2014). Corallopyronin A – A promising antibiotic for treatment of filariasis. Int J Med Microbiol304, 72-78.

  32. Lentz, C.S., Halls, V., Hannam, J.S., Niebel, B., Strübing, U., Mayer, G., Hoerauf, A., Famulok, M., and Pfarr, K.M. (2013). A selective inhibitor of heme biosynthesis in endosymbiotic bacteria elicits antifilarial activity in vitro. Chem Biol20, 177-187.

  33. Lentz, C.S., Stumpfe, D., Bajorath, J., Famulok, M., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K.M. (2013). New chemotypes for wALADin1-like inhibitors of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase from Wolbachia endobacteria. Bioorg Med Chem Lett23, 5558-5562.

  34. Schiefer, A., Vollmer, J., Lämmer, C., Specht, S., Lentz, C., Ruebsamen-Schaeff, H., Brötz-Oesterhelt, H., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2013). The ClpP protease of Wolbachia endobacteria is a novel endobacterial target for anti-filarial therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother68, 1790-1800.

  35. Specht, S., Debrah, A.Y., Klarmann, U., Mand, S., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2013). Chemotherapy of filariasis - established strategies and new developments. GMS Infect Dis1, 1-10.

  36. Vollmer, J., Schiefer, A., Schneider, T., Jülicher, K., Johnston, K.L., Taylor, M.J., Sahl, H.-G., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2013). Requirement of lipid II biosynthesis for cell division in cell wall-less Wolbachia, endobacteria of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Int J Med Microbiol303, 140-149.

  37. Albers, A., Esum, M.E., Tendongfor, N., Enyong, P., Klarmann, U., Wanji, S., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2012). Retarded Onchocerca volvulus L1 to L3 larval development in the Simulium damnosum vector after anti-wolbachial treatment of the human host. Parasit Vectors5, 12.

  38. Schiefer, A., Schmitz, A., Schäberle, T.F., Specht, S., Lämmer, C., Johnston, K.L., Vassylyev, D.G., König, G.M., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2012). Corallopyronin A specifically targets and depletes essential obligate Wolbachia endobacteria from filarial nematodes in vivo. J Infect Dis206, 249-257.

  39. Taylor, M.J., Ford, L., Hoerauf, A., Pfarr, K., Foster, J.M., Kumar, S., and Slatko, B.E. (2012). Drugs and Targets to Perturb the Symbiosis of Wolbachia and Filarial Nematodes. In Parasitic Helminths (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA), pp. 251-265.

  40. Debrah, A.Y., Batsa, L., Albers, A., Mand, S., Toliat, M.R., Nürnberg, P., Adjei, O., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2011). Transforming Growth Factor-β 1 variant Leu10Pro is associated with both lack of microfilariae and differential microfilarial loads in the blood of people infected with lymphatic filariasis. Hum Immunol72, 1143-1148.

  41. Debrah, A.Y., Mand, S., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Batsa, L., Albers, A., Specht, S., Klarmann, U., Pfarr, K., Adjei, O., and Hoerauf, A. (2011). Macrofilaricidal Activity in Wuchereria bancrofti after 2 Weeks Treatment with a Combination of Rifampicin plus Doxycycline. J Parasitol Res2011, 201617.

  42. Hoerauf, A., Pfarr, K., Mand, S., Debrah, A.Y., and Specht, S. (2011). Filariasis in Africa-treatment challenges and prospects. Clin Microbiol Infect17, 977-985.

  43. Niebel, B., Lentz, C., Pofahl, M., Mayer, G., Hoerauf, A., Pfarr, K.M., and Famulok, M. (2010). ADLOC: an aptamer-displacement assay based on luminescent oxygen channeling. Chemistry16, 11100-11107.

  44. Strübing, U., Lucius, R., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K.M. (2010). Mitochondrial genes for heme-dependent respiratory chain complexes are up-regulated after depletion of Wolbachia from filarial nematodes. Int J Parasitol40, 1193-1202.

  45. Debrah, A.Y., Mand, S., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Batsa, L., Pfarr, K., Lawson, B., Taylor, M., Adjei, O., and Hoerauf, A. (2009). Reduction in levels of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A and improvement in hydrocele patients by targeting endosymbiotic Wolbachia sp. in Wuchereria bancrofti with doxycycline. Am J Trop Med Hyg80, 956-963.

  46. Henrichfreise, B., Schiefer, A., Schneider, T., Nzukou, E., Poellinger, C., Hoffmann, T.J., Johnston, K.L., Moelleken, K., Wiedemann, I., Pfarr, K., et al. (2009). Functional conservation of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway in the cell wall-less bacteria Chlamydia and Wolbachia: why is lipid II needed? Mol Microbiol73, 913-923.

  47. Mand, S., Pfarr, K., Sahoo, P.K., Satapathy, A.K., Specht, S., Klarmann, U., Debrah, A.Y., Ravindran, B., and Hoerauf, A. (2009). Macrofilaricidal activity and amelioration of lymphatic pathology in bancroftian filariasis after 3 weeks of doxycycline followed by single-dose diethylcarbamazine. Am J Trop Med Hyg81, 702-711.

  48. Pfarr, K.M., Debrah, A.Y., Specht, S., and Hoerauf, A. (2009). Filariasis and lymphoedema. Parasite Immunol31, 664-672.

  49. Arumugam, S., Pfarr, K.M., and Hoerauf, A. (2008). Infection of the intermediate mite host with Wolbachia-depleted Litomosoides sigmodontis microfilariae: impaired L1 to L3 development and subsequent sex-ratio distortion in adult worms. Int J Parasitol38, 981-987.

  50. Hoerauf, A., Specht, S., Buttner, M., Pfarr, K., Mand, S., Fimmers, R., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Konadu, P., Debrah, A.Y., Bandi, C., et al. (2008). Wolbachia endobacteria depletion by doxycycline as antifilarial therapy has macrofilaricidal activity in onchocerciasis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Med Microbiol Immunol197, 295-311.

  51. Pfarr, K.M., Heider, U., Schmetz, C., Buttner, D.W., and Hoerauf, A. (2008). The mitochondrial heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is up-regulated in Onchocerca volvulus after the depletion of Wolbachia. Parasitology135, 529-538.

  52. Supali, T., Djuardi, Y., Pfarr, K.M., Wibowo, H., Taylor, M.J., Hoerauf, A., Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J., Yazdanbakhsh, M., and Sartono, E. (2008). Doxycycline treatment of Brugia malayi-infected persons reduces microfilaremia and adverse reactions after diethylcarbamazine and albendazole treatment. Clin Infect Dis46, 1385-1393.

  53. Debrah, A.Y., Mand, S., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Batsa, L., Pfarr, K., Buttner, M., Adjei, O., Buttner, D., and Hoerauf, A. (2007). Macrofilaricidal effect of 4 weeks of treatment with doxycycline on Wuchereria bancrofti. Trop Med Int Health12, 1433-1441.

  54. Debrah, A.Y., Mand, S., Toliat, M.R., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Batsa, L., Nurnberg, P., Lawson, B., Adjei, O., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K. (2007). Plasma vascular endothelial growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-A gene polymorphism are associated with hydrocele development in lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg77, 601-608.

  55. Pfarr, K., Foster, J., Slatko, B., Hoerauf, A., and Eisen, J.A. (2007). On the taxonomic status of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis: should this species name include the intracellular bacteria of filarial nematodes? Int J Syst Evol Microbiol57, 1677-1678.

  56. Pfarr, K.M., and Hoerauf, A. (2007). A niche for Wolbachia. Trends Parasitol23, 5-7.

  57. Debrah, A.Y., Mand, S., Specht, S., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Batsa, L., Pfarr, K., Larbi, J., Lawson, B., Taylor, M., Adjei, O., et al. (2006). Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Pathog2, e92.

  58. Heider, U., Blaxter, M., Hoerauf, A., and Pfarr, K.M. (2006). Differential display of genes expressed in the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis reveals a putative phosphate permease up-regulated after depletion of Wolbachia endobacteria. Int J Med Microbiol296, 287-299.

  59. Pfarr, K., Heider, U., and Hoerauf, A. (2006). RNAi mediated silencing of actin expression in adultLitomosoides sigmodontis is specific, persistent and results in a phenotype. Int J Parasitol36, 661-669.

  60. Pfarr, K.M., and Hoerauf, A.M. (2006). Antibiotics which target the Wolbachia endosymbionts of filarial parasites: a new strategy for control of filariasis and amelioration of pathology. Mini Rev Med Chem6, 203-210.

  61. Turner, J.D., Mand, S., Debrah, A.Y., Muehlfeld, J., Pfarr, K., McGarry, H.F., Adjei, O., Taylor, M.J., and Hoerauf, A. (2006). A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of a 3-week course of doxycycline plus albendazole and ivermectin for the treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. Clin Infect Dis42, 1081-1089.

  62. Gilbert, J., Nfon, C.K., Makepeace, B.L., Njongmeta, L.M., Hastings, I.M., Pfarr, K.M., Renz, A., Tanya, V.N., and Trees, A.J. (2005). Antibiotic chemotherapy of onchocerciasis: in a bovine model, killing of adult parasites requires a sustained depletion of endosymbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia species). J Infect Dis192, 1483-1493.

  63. Mand, S., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Debrah, A., Buettner, M., Batsa, L., Pfarr, K., Adjei, O., and Hoerauf, A. (2005). Frequent detection of worm movements in onchocercal nodules by ultrasonography. Filaria J4, 1.

  64. Pfarr, K., and Hoerauf, A. (2005). The annotated genome of Wolbachia from the filarial nematode Brugia malayi: what it means for progress in antifilarial medicine. PLoS Med2, e110.

  65. Hoerauf, A., Mand, S., Fischer, K., Kruppa, T., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Debrah, A.Y., Pfarr, K.M., Adjei, O., and Buttner, D.W. (2003). Doxycycline as a novel strategy against bancroftian filariasis-depletion of Wolbachia endosymbionts from Wuchereria bancrofti and stop of microfilaria production. Med Microbiol Immunol192, 211-216.

  66. McGarry, H.F., Pfarr, K., Egerton, G., Hoerauf, A., Akue, J.P., Enyong, P., Wanji, S., Klager, S.L., Bianco, A.E., Beeching, N.J., et al. (2003). Evidence against Wolbachia symbiosis in Loa loa. Filaria J2, 9.

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